By Ronald Rubin
An huge, immense quantity of study attempt has been directed towards elucidating the mechanism in which components are extruded from cells; and reports were written and symposia held which will systematize the plethora of proof made to be had. even if, the methods hired to check the secretory technique were so different that it truly is tough, if no longer most unlikely, for one person or perhaps a team of people to maintain abreast of all points of the sphere and to research them significantly. hence I undertook the writing of this quantity with loads of trepidation. In trying to find a few place to begin, I evidently regarded as my fundamental concentration the position of calcium within the secretory approach, which has occupied my study pursuits for the prior thirteen years. yet in view that loads experimentation has been performed in this and comparable issues over the past decade or , I felt it was once nonetheless essential to visualize this enterprise from substitute ap proaches: (1) a extra basic one, which might disguise the topic of calcium and the secretory approach from a wide viewpoint, yet in fact now not in nice element, and (2) a extra particular one, proscribing assurance to rigorously outlined limits yet with finished research of restricted subject matters. the ultimate direction undertaken seems to be to lie someplace among those extremes.
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Extra info for Calcium and the Secretory Process
The free calcium concentration is very low, which is at least partially explained by its avid binding to membrane systems. Electrical or chemical stimulation probably involves the dissociation of a phospholipid-calcium complex which results in a transient increase in intracellular calcium and is responsible for producing the cellular response. Even when chemical or electrical stimulation is associated with an increase in calcium entry, a proportionate increase in calcium efflux may occur, which would preclude the demonstration of a net change in cell calcium.
Baker, 1972). Niedergerke (1963) suggested that in heart muscle the carrier molecule for which sodium and calcium compete is negatively charged, so that it moves inward when the membrane is depolarized. A similar mechanism may account for the increase in the secretory response after stimulation, which results in an increase in the concentration of CaX at the surface of the membrane. The relationship between calcium uptake and the sodium concentration of cells was very clearly defined by Cooke and Robinson (1971), who showed that the ouabain-induced increase of radiocalcium and sodium in brain slices was blocked by tetrodotoxin, although, in the absence of ouabain, toxin blocked sodium accumulation but had no discernible effect on calcium accumulation.
4). This finding indicated that not only was calcium required for catecholamine release, but also its action was able to initiate secretion. c o GI a o Co-free Locke Locke ~ E Locke ) ( Fig. 3. The inhibitory effect of calcium deprivation on catecholamine release from the perfused cat adrenal gland in response to acetylcholine (ACh) (Douglas and Rubin 1961). The mechanism of the direct stimulatory effect of calcium requires some explanation, because it helps to understand certain basic physiological principles.
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