By William B. Gudykunst
After laying out the fundamental theories of intercultural verbal exchange, this e-book explains the similarities and ameliorations in styles of verbal exchange in Japan and the U.S.. The authors then show how an realizing of those contrasting styles may help eastern and North americans speak extra effectively.
content material: Cultural Similarities and ameliorations among the USA and Japan --
Language utilization within the usa and Japan --
verbal exchange styles within the usa and Japan --
expectancies for Japanese/North American verbal exchange --
potent Japanese/North American Communication.
summary: After laying out the fundamental theories of intercultural conversation, this ebook explains the similarities and alterations in styles of conversation in Japan and the U.S.. The authors then exhibit how an realizing of those contrasting styles may help eastern and North americans converse extra successfully
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Additional resources for Bridging Japanese/North American differences
5. See Wierzbica (1991) for an attempt to define several Japanese key words (amae, enryo, wa, on, giri, and seishin) and how they are related to Japanese core values. 6. The family structure in Japan is becoming more "loose" over time, and this claim may not apply to all families. 7. Murase (1984) argues that Japan is a sunao culture that is relationship oriented. This orientation leads to personality characteristics that emphasize dependency (amae). 8. See Fu jihara and Kurokawa (1981) for a scale to measure amae in Japan.
However, here, selves are "mutually dependent," and their spontaneous fulfillment of the needs are intentionally controlled, (p. , Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Ingroups Triandis (1988) argues that collectivistic cultures emphasize goals, needs, and views of the ingroup over those of the individual; the social norms of the ingroup rather than individual pleasure; shared ingroup beliefs rather than unique individual beliefs; and a value on cooperation with ingroup members rather than maximizing individual outcomes.
Collectivism thus involves cooperation and solidarity, and the sentimental desire for the warm feeling of ittaikan ("feeling oneness") with fellow members of one's group is widely shared by Japanese, (p. , Nakane, 1970; see Zander, 1983, for a discussion of the importance placed on group membership in Japan). To fully understand how individualism and collectivism are manifested in Japan and the United States, it is necessary to look at several specific issues. - Cultural Similarities and Differences 21 ate the two cultures involve the predominant self-construals and the role of the ingroup.