Bourgeoisie, State and Democracy: Russia, Britain, France, by Graeme Gill

By Graeme Gill

One of many key questions in social technological know-how is the position of the bourgeoisie in making a democracy. an incredible factor in modern overseas politics is the trajectory of the present Russian political method. This booklet brings those questions jointly by way of exploring the position performed by way of the bourgeoisie in shaping political results in 5 international locations: modern Russia, commercial revolution Britain, France, Germany and the us. Its major concentration is the best way the several new company periods were built-in into the political method, and the results this had for the political trajectories of the respective international locations. The modern Russian event is thrown into aid via comparability with the nationwide reviews of the opposite 4 nations, permitting conclusions to be drawn approximately either the overall query of the historical function of this classification in democratization and the extra particular query of its function in Russia this day.

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For some figures that confirm the substance of Charle’s view but for a slightly later period, see Pierre Lauthier, ‘Les dirigeans des grandes enterprises electriques en France, 1911–1973’, Maurice Levy-Leboyer (ed), Le patronat de la seconde industrialisation (Paris, Les Editions ouvrieres, 1970), p. 106 and Maurice Levy-Leboyer, ‘Le patronat francais, 1912–1973’, Levy-Leboyer (Le patronat), p. 142. 19 But this sort of activity was rarely extended into major operations directly run by the landowner.

Furthermore, as the importance of London as an international financial centre grew, and therefore financial flows came to play a major role in the country’s balance of payments, this external focus was strengthened. This meant that not only was there not a strong economic link between the City and domestic industry, but nor was there any social merging between the men who dominated these two spheres. The British financial and industrial elites did not merge, and although they came to overlap at the edges, they remained substantially distinct entities.

This is also consistent with the information available about the origins of businessmen in the United States. 4. 5. Occupations of fathers of businessmen in the United States (%) Father’s occupation Manufacturer Merchant Banker Total business Professional Worker Farmer 19th Century iron and steel manufacturers Ingham 55 12 3 70 15 10 5 American businessmen Gregory & Neu 51 16 8 25 Source: Ingham (Rags to Riches), p. 617. The debate about the merchant versus artisanal roots of the emergent American business class noted above has been paralleled by a similar discussion over whether the new industrialists were ‘new men’ (and they were overwhelmingly men) from lower social origins who worked their way up by dint of hard work, or whether there was much more continuity of control and status.

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Bourgeoisie, State and Democracy: Russia, Britain, France, by Graeme Gill
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