By Barry Buzan
An creation to Strategic reviews addresses a number of the significant questions that govern either diplomacy and human survival. This ebook presents a complete advent to the middle options of latest strategic pondering. It argues that strategic reports is ready the impression of army know-how on relatives among states, and that its specialized contribution should always be noticeable in the broader context of foreign monetary and political relations.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Strategic Studies: Military Technology and International Relations
As Jervis argues, the question of which is dominant is central not only to the military side of individual national security policy, but also to the whole character of military relations between states. When the defensive is dominant, and known to be so, then military relations should be easier to manage than when the offensive is dominant, and known to be so. This issue will be explored further in the discussion of non-provocative defence in Chapter 17. Unfortunately, war is the only foolproof test of whether the offensive or the defensive is dominant, and because the character of military power can change substantially between wars there may be considerable peacetime uncertainty or misjudgement on the question.
4 Communications The revolution in communications began in the mid-nineteenth century with the invention of the telegraph. Like the railways, the telegraph spread rapidly, adding instant long-distance communication to the revolution in mobility. The development of radiocommunications ('wireless telegraphy') at the end of the nineteenth century added flexibility to the rigid telegraph system. With radio, mobile units on land and ships at sea could be kept in constant touch with central control. This revolution has travelled into space with satellites, which enable huge increases in the range and flow of communications to be achieved easily.
One historian has described the impact of the war in terms of a historic divide between the character of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: The Great War of 1914-18 lies like a band of scorched earth dividing that time from ours. In wiping out so many lives which would have been operative on the years that followed, in destroying beliefs, changings ideas, and leaving incurable wounds of disillusion, it created a physical as well as a psychological gulf between two epochs. (Tuchman, 1967, p.
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