Practical organic chemistry including qualitative organic by Arthur Israel Vogel

By Arthur Israel Vogel

The best books there's instructing sensible natural chemistry. The 3rd version of this e-book (first released in 1956) is basically of far better use to the pastime chemist, because it doesn't utilize any hideously pricey glassware/apparatus or unique reagents or catalysts.

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Drierite"). Metallic sodium Used particularly for ethers. Cannot be used (preferably as wire). for any compound affected by alkalis, or easily subject to reduction (owing to the hydrogen evolved during dehydration). , benzene, anhydrous chloral). METHODS AND MANIPULATION 25 Distillation. If the impurities in a liquid are non-volatile, the liquid may be purified by direct distillation, the impurities remaining in the distilling-flask. This process is therefore essentially the same as a simple distillation for boiling-point determination, and has been already described on pp.

The capillary tube E should always be prepared by drawing out a piece of thickwalled capillary tube of about 4-5 mm. external bore, and then adjusting the length of the fine capillary tube below so that it reaches to within 1-2 mm. of the bottom of the flask: it should never be prepared by drawing out an ordinary glass "quill" tube, otherwise the fine capillary so obtained will be too fragile, and will probably snap during the course of the distillation. The side* For all vacuum distillations, a trap (cf.

Stable liquids of high boiling-point can be similarly stored in stoppered bottles or in corked specimen tubes: in the latter case, however, unless the liquid is required again shortly, it is advisable to wax the cork in order to hold it firmly in position and also to prevent the liquid from slowly seeping through the cork itself. , until it has become a mobile liquid. After the cork and the extreme end of the tube have been immersed in the wax, the tube is removed and, while still inverted, gently rotated so that the wax solidifies as a layer of uniform thickness.

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Practical organic chemistry including qualitative organic by Arthur Israel Vogel
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