By Michael H. Fisher
The Mughal Empire ruled India politically, culturally, socially, economically and environmentally, from its origin through Babur, a significant Asian adventurer, in 1526 to the ultimate trial and exile of the final emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar by the hands of the British in 1858. in the course of the empire’s 3 centuries of upward thrust, preeminence and decline, it remained a dynamic and intricate entity inside of and opposed to which varied peoples and pursuits conflicted. The empire’s value remains to be debatable between students and politicians with clean and intriguing new insights, theories and interpretations being recommend lately. This e-book engages scholars and normal readers with a transparent, energetic and educated narrative of the middle political occasions, the struggles and interactions of key participants, teams and cultures, and of the contending historiographical arguments surrounding the Mughal Empire.
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Additional info for A Short History of the Mughal Empire
14 Babur also noted that his second political marriage, with Zaynab Sultan Begum, ‘was not congenial,’ although not to the point of divorce. She died of smallpox after a few years in Kabul. Babur’s next marriage was also with a closely related Timurid, the engagement approved and advanced by their female clan elders. Babur recorded that this wedding resulted initially from the personal attraction between him and Masuma Sultan Begum (the youngest half-sister of his divorced first wife, Ayisha).
In addition to the Mongols, Turks and Uzbeks, the Safavids of Iran were the fourth major power in Mawarannahr. The Safavid dynasty’s founder, Shah Ismail (1487–1524), had inherited a small kingdom in Azerbaijan at age 12, and also sacred leadership as pir of the powerful Safavi order of Shi‘i Sufis. Some Safavid rulers proclaimed themselves millennial representatives of the twelfth Shi‘i Imam. Militant Safavi disciples, known as the qizilbash (‘redheads’ from the distinctive 12 red points of their symbolically folded turbans), formed vital parts of the Safavid state, as both courtiers and cavalry.
Fisher their rival sons and half-sons. 17 Babur entered their world with formality and ritual, as well as occasional intimacy. Only years after he had established himself in north India did he direct the women of his household to join him there from Kabul. As they arrived, he ceremoniously greeted them according to their status and place in his personal regard. During his four years in India, the last stage of his life, Babur made no further marriages. But he did expend much effort in balancing his reliance on each of his four contending sons and in securing his political and cultural legacies for them.
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