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Additional resources for A score test for the linkage analysis of qualitative and quantitative traits based on identity [...]
The position of species boundaries depends on what features are chosen for characterizing the morphological units. 4. Even if the characters have been well chosen, different clustering methods may yield different clusters of similar organisms; that is, the choice of clustering algorithm is necessarily arbitrary. Sometimes there are indeed more or less distinct morphological gaps that allow the recognition of similar phenotypes within agamotaxa, as is the case in uniparental Bdelloidea (Rotatoria) (Holman 1987), some clones of whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus) (Cole 1985), and mosses in the genus Tortula (Mishler and Brandon 1987:407).
Thus, some species are delimited based on apomorphies but others exclusively on plesiomorphies. This practice clearly obscures the hierarchical structure that is present within agamotaxa. It is surprising that even phylogenetically inclined systematists have overlooked this problem of morphology-based species concepts in uniparental organisms (but see Frost and Wright 1988). Phylogenetic Justification Organismic evolution is the evolution of the species and its subgroups, and phylogenetic reconstruction is based on the assumption that evolution has occurred.
It is also largely true for Templeton’s (1989, 1994) Cohesion Species Concept. A paper often cited as a 02 wheeler chap02 3/7/00 10:18 AM Page 23 The Biological Species Concept 23 decisive refutation of the Biological Species Concept (Sokal and Crovello 1970) is perhaps an extreme example of the confusion resulting from the failure to discriminate between the species as category (concept) and as taxon. the species taxon The word taxon refers to a concrete zoological or botanical object consisting of a classiﬁable population (or group of populations) of organisms.
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